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NEW BOOKS OFFER RESEARCH SUMMARIES AND RISK COMMUNICATION
Two new books have recently been published on biological and health effects of EMF — one in English, one in French.
The Societé Francaise de Radioprotection, Fontenay-aux-Roses, France, released its 82-page softcover French-language handbook on the biological effects of nonionizing radiation, “Les effets biologiques des rayonnements non ionisants,” in March.
In Japan, editors Hiraku Takebe, Takeshi Shiga, Masamichi Kato and Eisuke Masada brought out a substantial 368-page hardcover entitled “Biological and Health Effects from Exposure to Power-line Frequency Electromagnetic Fields. Confirmation of Absence of Any Effects at Environmental Field Strengths,” at about the same time.
The French handbook, by Annette Duchêne and Jacques Joussot-Dubien, is intended for the general public and begins with the basics of the electromagnetic spectrum. The authors discuss what is known about the biological effects of ultraviolet, visible light, infrared, laser, radio-frequency, power-frequency 50/60-Hz electric and magnetic fields, static fields and ultrasound, and summarize exposure limits established by international agencies.
The Japanese book, titled “Biological and Health Effects from Exposure to Power-line Frequency Electromagnetic Fields— Confirmation of Absence of Any Effects at Environmental Field Strengths,” was originally published in Japanese in 1999. Walter Rogers, Radio Frequency Radiation Bioeffects Research Laboratory, Brooks Air Force Base, San Antonio, Texas, edited the English version just released.
Part I summarize the authors’ own EMF research as well as related studies by others. Tokyo Electric Power Company’s (TEPCO) multi-year research program to explore possible biological and human health effects from exposure to power-frequency electric and magnetic fields, emphasizing possible cancer-related EMF effects and the search for a potential mechanism. Part II summarizes EMF toxicology studies supported by TEPCO, mainly at the Mitsubishi Chemical Safety Institute, Ibaraki. References and an index are included, along with many graphs, diagrams, tables and photographs.
Takebe and colleagues explain in the preface to this new translation that “Soon after TEPCO started this research program, the U.S. EMF RAPID Program got underway in the United States. “Research plans in the EMF RAPID program overlapped considerably with our research plans,” the authors note, “and much of our research was carried out in parallel with the EMF RAPID program. Our experiments were comparable to most of those in the EMF RAPID program in planning, size, manpower and budget, and we often corresponded with researchers in the EMF RAPID Program to exchange ideas and information concerning issues such as choice of biological endpoints and methodology.”
Like the RAPID Program, the Japanese research effort was designed to pay special attention to “negative studies,” because as the authors explain, “negative data often are difficult to publish in scientific journals.” The new book is also important because results of so few Japanese studies have been available in English. “The editors of this book believe that the research in this book should be widely circulated to the international scientific community,” say Takebe and colleagues, since “the work is both comprehensive and conducted according to the highest scientific standards.”
Their overall conclusion: “Based on the experimental studies compiled in this book, we conclude that there is no evidence to indicate that the EMF found in the environment in Japan are harmful to health.”
“Les effets biologiques des rayonnements non ionisants” is available from Flammarion Médecine-Sciences, 4 rue Casimir-Delavigne, 75006, Paris, FRANCE. ISBN 2-257-11050-1. More information at: www.medecine-flammarion.com
The Japanese volume published by Ohmsha, Ltd., Tokyo, is available in the USA and Canada from IOS Press, Inc., Burke, Va., FAX +1 703 323-3668; in the UK and Ireland from IOS Press, Inc., Headington, Oxford, England, FAX +44 1865 75 0079; in Germany, Austria and Switzerland from IOS Press/LSL.de Leipzig, Germany, FAX +49 341 995 4255; in Japan from Ohmsha, Ltd. Tokyo, FAX: +81 3 3293 6224, and in the Netherlands and the rest of the world from IOS Press, Amsterdam, FAX: +31 20 620 3419.
BEMS WORKSHOP: NEW DATA ON ELF AND RF MECHANISMS
by Asher Sheppard
Nine speakers, including past-presidents James Lin, Larry Anderson and Kenneth McLeod, as well as current President Frank Barnes, were featured at the workshop “Electromagnetic Fields Interactions with Living Matter,” on Feb. 9, 2001 in Washington, D.C. The meeting, sponsored by BEMS and attended by 40 people this year, provides scientists, government officials, industry representatives, and the public an opportunity to learn current happenings in bioelectromagnetics directly from active scientists. It has become an annual event coinciding with the Board of Directors’ meeting.
Secretary Ewa Czerska, speaking on behalf of herself and coorganizer Lee Rosen, made introductory remarks followed by a presentation from Frank Barnes, who discussed RF mechanisms from both biophysical and chemical perspectives. Barnes noted that electromagnetic coupling often introduces non-uniform patterns of energy deposition, and comparisons between thermal time constants and pulse durations are important because of the rapid thermalization of heat in biological tissue. Modulation-dependent effects may occur for cases in which amplitude modulation produces short-lived temperature pulses. Experimental evidence also suggests that periodic forcing functions, such as those from a regular pulse train, might influence biochemical systems differently than continuous energy input. A lively question period followed, during which Barnes remarked that because the scientific and public policy issues surrounding technological uses of electromagnetic energy are so complext, questions will persist.
James Lin then spoke about ELF and RF field coupling in biological tissues and how the frequency dependence of polar materials and bound particles determined the nature of biophysical effects. Lin emphasized the broad usefulness of specific absorption rate (SAR) for quantification of RF energy absorption and the role which eddy currents can play in producing complex spatial field patterns in biological cells and tissues.
The meeting next turned to ELF mechanisms at the cell surface with Kenneth McLeod’s talk. He began with the observation that the lack of mechanistic understanding for low-level effects was an obstacle to our understanding of fundamental biological processes such as development, repair, and adaptation — as well as posing an obstacle to gaining a firmer grasp on the uses of exogenous fields in various therapies. Motivated by the observation that intracellular ELF fields are strongly attenuated, recent work in McLeod’s laboratory has focused on the influence of fields on the extracellular matrix. This has led to findings of long-lasting effects of weak fields on phenotypic expression. Experiments with polysulfonated fibronectin coated onto silicon wafers probes the highly non-linear process of protein self-organization and its dependence on substrate charge density. McLeod explained how this work has led to exploration of a potential relationship between ferrous ion levels in drinking water and breast cancer incidence.
Before discussing several animal studies of cancer and EMF, Larry Anderson pointed out that a past emphasis on cancer research has diverted attention from other research areas which could well be important for public health. The present status of animal research depends on data from experiments on spontaneous tumor formation, initiation-promotion models, evaluating cocarcinogenesis, and studies of the growth of transplanted tumor cells. Questioners showed particular interest in divergent results from similar studies of mammary cancer in rats conducted in Hannover, Germany, by Wolfgang Löscher and colleagues, and at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory by Anderson and colleagues. Potential factors—discussed in detail in a collaborative 2000 paper in “Environmental Health Perspectives” by researchers at the two laboratories—include differences in static and alternating fields, rat strains, and dose of the tumor initiator.
“A past emphasis on cancer research has diverted attention from other research areas which could well be important for public health.”
Antonio Sastre discussed effects of magnetic field exposure on heart rate variability. He explained that in the Framingham health study a reduction of one standard deviation in heart rate variability was associated with a 44 percent increase in mortality and morbidity, suggesting that a magnetic field effect on variability of comparable size would be a significant risk factor. This suggests a link to findings of higher mortality in a study of cardiac death among electrical utility workers. The most recent research on human beings indicated that subject arousal attending nighttime blood draws was a necessary concomitant factor with magnetic field exposure and that effects were gender-dependent. Sastre concluded with speculation—based on calculation —that interaction sites in the brain cortex appear likely, but not those in deep-lying brain structures, the heart itself, or its innervation.
Next, Ruggero Cadossi reported finding that pulsed magnetic fields stimulated proliferation of chondrocytes isolated from human tissues only if cells were grown in the presence of fetal calf serum. Specific factors such as theinterleukin family and the growth factor TGF-b were tested, but none proved effective as a co-agent for expression of magnetic field effects.
The attention on magnetic fields took another turn with Stefan Engström’s presentation of the evidence and physical rationale for placing relatively greater importance on magnetic field gradients compared to magnetic field amplitudes.
Next, Frank Prato discussed his experiments on human subjects’ ability to maintain postural balance—a marker he and his colleagues have developed in a new protocol for evaluating neurophysiological effects of magnetic fields in humans. In a preliminary report published this year in Neuroscience Letters, Prato and colleagues reported that a pulsed ELF magnetic field affected the vestibular system. In their experiment, subjects stood on a platform while undergoing whole body exposure to a 200μTesla, 60-Hz pulsed ELF magnetic field. Force transducers attached to the platform determined the steadiness of their balance. Magnetic field exposure had no effect on balance in subjects with their eyes open in a well-lit room, but a significant effect was observed when the eyes were closed or light levels were reduced.
The final paper of the day was given by Andrea DiCarlo of the Vitreous State Laboratory at Catholic University of America, Washington, D.C. She and laboratory director Ted Litovitz devised experiments to test the hypothesis that ELF signals may displace the counterion layer surrounding the cell plasma membrane. Litovitz also wanted to know if counterion displacements caused by vibration would have the same effect. The two stressed chick embryos by hypoxia or exposure to ultraviolet light and measured the survival rate. Among embryos exposed to a 60-Hz magnetic field or 60-Hz mechanical vibrations (9.8 m•s-2), survival was enhanced to about the same extent (~60 %) for exposure to either an 8-μT magnetic field or 60-Hz vibration. As was true for earlier research with ELF magnetic fields and ELF-modulated RF fields published in Bioelectromagnetics and elsewhere, both magnetic field and vibration effects depended on the flock that produced the eggs as well as a “coherence time” of the order of 10 s. Survival enhancements were lost when noise was added to the waveform of the applied field or vibration, DiCarlo reported.
U.K. ADVISORY GROUP ON NIR UPDATES REPORT
The U.K. National Radiological Protection Board’s (NRPB) Advisory Group on Non-ionising Radiation (AGNIR) released its report on power-frequency electromagnetic fields and the risk of cancer at a press conference in Chilton on March 6.
AGNIR’s main conclusion, as quoted by the NRPB:
“Laboratory experiments have provided no good evidence that extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields are capable of producing cancer, nor do human epidemiological studies suggest that they cause cancer in general. There is, however, some epidemiological evidence that prolonged exposure to higher levels of power frequency magnetic fields is associated with a small risk of leukaemia in children. In practice, such levels of exposure are seldom encountered by the general public in the UK. In the absence of clear evidence of a carcinogenic effect in adults, or of a plausible explanation from experiments on animals or isolated cells, the epidemiological evidence is currently not strong enough to justify a firm conclusion that such fields cause leukaemia in children. Unless, however, further research indicates that the finding is due to chance or some currently unrecognised artefact, the possibility remains that intense and prolonged exposures to magnetic fields can increase the risk of leukaemia in children.”
An NRPB press release, along with an executive summary and major conclusions of the 173-page AGNIR report may be viewed at the NRPB Web site: www.nrpb.org.uk
The full AGNIR report may be obtained from the NRPB information office, which accepts major credit cards. Phone +44 1235 82 2742; FAX +44 1 235 822 746 or e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
NEWS IN BRIEF
AUSTRALIAN SENATE COMMITTEE REPORTS TO PARLIAMENT
An Australian Senate Committee completed its inquiry on health effects of “electromagnetic radiation” and issued a three-part report in Canberra on May 4.
Committee chair Lyn Allison called for an approximately 10fold increase in EMF-RF health effects research in Australia, to be funded through a $5 annual fee collected for each mobile phone in use, the fee to be reviewed every five years.
Allison’s plan would allow the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) to continue administering an annual research program of about $4 million, but it would ask the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO) to start a dedicated program of about $36 million to support RF health effects studies.
Allison, of the Democrat Party, and members made a total of 13 recommendations. They include:
“The committee chair recommends that, particularly in light of recent reports on the links between powerlines, radio towers and leukaemia, additional research into extremely low frequencies and TV/radio tower exposure should be encouraged.”
“The committee Chair recommends that precautionary measures for the placement of powerlines be up-graded to include wide buffer zones, and undergrounding and shielding cables where practicable.”
“The Committee recommends that based on a growing body of research that provides evidence of biological effects, the Commonwealth Government considers developing material to advise parents and children of the potential risks associated with mobile phone use.”
“The Committee recommends that shielding and hands-free devices are tested, labeled for their effectiveness and regulated by standards.”
“The Committee Chair recommends that the Government review the Telecommunications (Low-impact Facilities) Determination of 1997, and as a precautionary measure, amend it to enable community groups to have greater input into the siting of antenna towers and require their installation to go through normal local government planning processes.”
“The Committee recommends the development of an industry code of practice for handling consumer health complaints.”
“The Committee recommends the establishment of a centralized complaints mechanism in the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) or the Department of Health for people to report adverse health effects associated with mobile phone use and other radiofrequency technology, and for the data from this register to be considered by NHMRC in determining research funding priorities.”
Six other recommendations, one by the full committee and five only from the chair, Allison, suggest that the Australian government sponsor conferences on RF health effects, study p53 mice, define and administer an RF standard “by a process similar to that used by Standards Australia,” and that Australia’s expired Interim Standard (AS/NZS 2772.1(Int):1998) of 200 microWatts per square centimeter be retained in the Australian Standard.
Dissenting Liberal and Labour Party members of the senate committee objected, however, to what they termed an “enormous” increase in research funding, from AUS$4.5 million to AUS$40 million, recommended by Allison.
In their “Critique of the Chair’s Report,” Labor Party senators on the committee express support for ongoing research, but point out that “some recommendations and evidence are outside the terms of reference of the Inquiry.... some recommendations and conclusions are nonsensical and unfounded in the light of the evidence.... certain evidence has been given undue weight notwithstanding dubious credibility of witnesses.... evidence has been distorted or taken out of context.”
Full text of the Australian Senate report including the two dissenting reports are available in a series of pdf files on the Web at: www.aph.gov.au/senate_environment
Scientists in European Union member nations are expected to begin a series of joint studies supported in part by the European Union’s Cooperation on Scientific and Technical research program, or COST. Although COST does not fund the research, it facilitates cooperation between research institutions and makes recommendations to appropriate EU committees in Brussels. One of these recently designated nine new projects to begin in July 2001, according to the London Times.
The projects will include research on:
- Channel Modelling and Propagation Impairment Mitigation for Millimetre-Wave Radio Systems — improving the design and planning of broadband telecommunications systems
- Electromagnetic Fields and Health: Emerging Information and Communication Technologies — gaining “a better understanding of possible health impacts of emerging technologies, especially related to communication and information technologies, that may result in exposure to electromagnetic fields.”
- Applied Biocatalysis: Stereoselective and Environmentally Friendly Reaction Catalysed by Enzymes
- Integrative Computational Chemistry — increasing the power and scope of computational chemistry for the European chemical research community
In addition to telecommunications and information technology, other research will focus on surveillance of food-borne animal illnesses such as foot-and-mouth disease, molecular breeding for crop improvement, modelling plant-soil interactions, pollution indicators in groundwater, and the environmental impact of transportation projects.
As noted, COST’s Committee of Senior Officials (CSO) help European universities and institutes to design and coordinate joint research projects. The CSO also helps to organize scientific exchanges and arranges for research publication. Core research costs are usually met by national budgets. The CSO also reportedly agreed to support some studies by non-EU research groups, at the University of Illinois and the University of Texas-Dallas, the Russian Academy of Science and Ukraine Academy of Science, and Concordia University in Montréal, Canada.
Bioelectromagnetics Society members may learn more about COST’s goals and process from BEMS member Ulf Bergqvist, Department of Industrial Ergonomics, University of Linkoping, Linkoping S-58183, SWEDEN. Phone +46 13 28 2573; FAX: +46 13 28 25 79. E-mail: email@example.com
• IEEE SCC-34 Subcommittee 2, Wednesday, June 6 and Thursday, June 7 from 8:30 a.m. to 6 p.m. in Governor’s Room II & III. Contact Richard A. Tell (702) 645-3338 or Howard Bassen (301) 827-4950; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
• IEEE SCC-34 Main Committee Meeting, Thursday June 7, 7 to 10 p.m., in Governor’s Room II & III. For more information, contact Ron C. Petersen, Manager, Wireless and Optical Technologies Safety Department, Lucent Technolo-gies/Bell Labs, Room 1E231, 600 Mountain Avenue, Murray Hill, NJ 07974-0636. Phone: (908) 582 6442; Fax: (908) 582 6693. Email: email@example.com
• An Open Discussion of RF Exposure Systems for Animal Toxicology and Carcinogenicity Studies, sponsored by the National Toxicology Program, Wednesday, June 13, 7:30 9:00 p.m. in Great River I. Moderator will be Christopher Portier, acting associate director, U.S. National Toxicology Program. Speakers include John Ladbury, U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology, on “RF Exposure Systems for Biomagnetic Experiments in Rodents at Telephone Frequencies”; Niels Kuster, Swiss Foundation for Research on Information Technologies in Society; “Comments and Discussion: Dosimetry of RF Exposure”; Speaker To Be Announced for “Practical Aspects of Conducting Toxicology Experiments with Different RF Exposure Systems.” Panel discussions, with comments on “Dosimetry of RF Exposures” will be held, as well. Audience participation is encouraged.
• Forum Mobilkommunikation (FMK), a non-profit industry association in Austria sponsors a Science Helpdesk on the Web for industry spokespersons, health and research institutes and other subscribers, helping them to stay informed about research on mobile phones and health. Sheila A. Johnston, neuroscience consultant, London, and FMK Director Romana Steidl, Vienna, maintain the non-profit Website, which is password-protected. Several well known scientific publishers permit use of their abstracts in return for copyright acknowledgement and web address notices. Scientists update the site with new papers as well at: www.sciencefaqs.com See Poster 140 for more details.
PROCEEDINGS AVAILABLE FROM ST. PETERSBURG INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP
The Swedish National Institute for Working Life has published a series of papers from a workshop in St. Petersburg, Russia, from October 17-20, 2000 on “clinical and physiological investigations of people highly exposed to electromagnetic fields.” The conference was sponsored by NIWL, Russian Institute of Human Brain, St. Petersburg, and the Bioelectromagnetics Society.
Kjell Hansson Mild and Monica Sandström, NIWL, Umeå, edited the 58-page paper, which covers possible effects of exposurein the extremely-low-frequency (ELF) to microwave and radio-frequency ranges.
“Proceedings from the International Workshop—Clinical and Physiological Investigations of People Highly Exposed to Electromagnetic Fields,” is available on the Web at: www.niwl.se/ arb/2001.html or by contacting Mild at the National Institute for Working Life, Box 7654, S-907 13 Umeå, Sweden; Phone +46 90 176017; FAX +46 90 176117.
Arsène Jacques d’Arsonval was a gifted physician, biologist, physiologist and physicist born in France in 1851, whose theoretical and experimental research objectives often led to development of refined instruments and inventions which became important in biological sciences and medicine. This extension of laboratory tools to industrial use was exemplified by d’Arsonval’s work on metabolism, according to Don Justesen and Arthur Guy, in a 1985 profile in Bioelectromagnetics.
d’Arsonval’s studies of the difference between body temperature and body metabolism led ultimately to inventions — such as the calorimeter, thermostat, thermogalvanometers for measuring blood gases and liquids, cell-culturing apparatus, and devices such as the double-walled bottle (now known as a thermos) for lowering the temperature of cell suspensions in the laboratory using liquid air.
d’Arsonval’s research on electrophysiological activity in muscles and nerves led him to explore the effects of low- and high-frequency currents, which in turn led to his designing radio-frequency generators and applicators for medical use known as diathermy, Justesen and Guy note.
He was the first physican to use field-induced hyperthermia to treat cancer, and one of his generators was taken to Paris and used as the source of the first wireless transmission from the Eiffel Tower. Many other instruments devised by d’Arsonval— mobile galvanometers, voltmeters, ammeters, thermoelectric appliances, telephones, myophones and more—remain in common use in physics and biology laboratories today and have found their way to physiology laboratories, medical clinics and to industry, as well, they add.
Further, d’Arsonval “might well be credited as a founder of industrial medicine,” say Justesen and Guy, for he invented an electric chronometer to measure the speed of nerve conduction and duration of exciteability of muscles and nerve cells after the death of experimental animals, which led to studies of the mechanism of death after electrocution of industrial workers. His work on mammalian pulmonary respiration and lung function was notable, as well.
“Members of the Bioelectromagnetics Society can take great pride in the namesake of its most prestigious award,” wrote Guy and Justesen. “He is the the patron scientific saint of all investigators of every nation that labor at the intersections of electromagnetic waves, biological systems, and medical applications.”
Previous d’Arsonval Award winners are Nancy Wertheimer, Om P. Gandhi, C.H. Durney, W. Ross Adey, C.A. L. Bassett, Arthur Guy and Herman P. Schwan.
by Larry Anderson and Janet Lathrop
Thomas S. Tenforde, senior chief scientist in the environmental technology division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Wash., will receive the eighth d’Arsonval Award, presented by the Bioelectromagnetics Society to recognize “extraordinary accomplishment within the discipline of bioelectromagnetics.” This award recognizes Tenforde’s extensive research on dosimetry and biophysical interaction of static and low-frequency electric and magnetic fields with living systems.
Tenforde was president of the Bioelectromagnetics Society in 1987-1988. The d’Arsonval Award will be presented to Tenforde by current BEMS President Frank Barnes on Monday, June 11 during an awards luncheon from 12:15 to 1:45 in the Minnesota East Ballroom at the St. Paul Radisson Riverfront Hotel. Tenforde’s talk for the occasion is titled “The Wonders of Magnetism.”
Educated at Harvard University and the University of California at Berkeley, Tenforde’s strong interest in bioelectromagnetics began with the use of static electric fields for single-cell micro-electrophoresis during his doctoral thesis work. In the 1970s and 1980s at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory he conducted a broad range of biological studies on static and ELF magnetic fields. Tom and his colleagues at the Donner Laboratory at the University of California developed what soon became the foremost program investigating the biological effects of strong static magnetic fields. These studies looked at the cardiovascular system, the nervous system, thermoregulation, circadian rhythmicity, lipid bilayer membrane permeability, and animal behavior.
This work initially began because of concerns about human exposure to strong magnetic fields near thermonuclear fusion reactors, magneto-hydrodynamic power systems, and high-energy physics facilities such as cyclotrons and bubble chambers. Tom and his colleagues played a key role in the evaluation of potential risks to patients and workers from MRI facilities. They helped to demonstrate the safety of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems, and aided the establishment of occupational and public exposure guidelines for exposure to static magnetic fields by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists and the International Commission on Nonionizing Radiation Protection.
In the early 1980s, Tom led research in the development of a small computerized exposure meter for recording static magnetic fields that could be worn during a normal work day. Subsequently this meter was modified for EPRI to measure small ELF magnetic fields. It was the first of what has become a series of smaller and more capable meters developed for electromagnetic field exposure measurements. In our age of microminiature electronics and computers this has become routine, but in the early 1980s it was truly a formidable undertaking.
In 1987, Tom became a senior chief scientist in the health division at the Pacific Northwest National Lab. He has been at the center in the development of NMR spectrometer systems, including the world’s highest frequency (900 MHz) analytical NMR spectrometer for the study of large macromolecular structures. This is important because many biological molecules of interest are too large to be satisfactorily studied in aqueous solution with existing NMR systems operating at lower frequencies.
As manager of PNNL’s Hanford Radioisotopes Program, Tenforde supervised work which produced the medical isotope yttrium-90, which is now being used worldwide to treat cancer and recently won an award as one of the 23 most important new technologies developed with financial support from DOE. By 1999, yttrium-90 production and sales were privatized and the accomplishment won a Federal Laboratory Consortium Award.
Tenforde is well known among his peers, having served on more than 30 national and international committees and boards, contributed to as a reviewer to scores of agency reviews and journals, and for his national and international standards-related work on public and occupational exposure to ionizing and nonionizing radiation. He is a member of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the New York Academy of Sciences, the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, the Radiation Research Society and the Society of Nuclear Medicine.
Tom has benefited greatly throughout his career from the encouragement of his wife, Susan, and his sons Adam and Mark.
In Newsletter No. 145 (November/December 1998) there was an error in printing of the Associate Editors and Editorial Board for Volume 19 (#s 2-8). There was a change in Associate Editors and Editorial Board between Volume 19 (1) and Volume 19 (2). The correct editorial personnel beginning with Volume 19 (2) are printed below:
Larry E. Anderson, Alessandro Chiabrera,
C.-K. Chou, Jukka Juutilainenm Raphael C. Lee
Suzanne Bawin, Janie P. Blanchard,
Michael Bornhausen, Ruggero Cadossi,
Mary R. Cook, Birgitta Floderus, Sheila Galt,
Niels Kuster, Richard A. Luben,
Mats-Olof Mattsson, Kjell Hansson Mild,
Russel Reiter, Janet Rubin, Asher R. Sheppard,
Betty F. Sisken, Maria A. Stuchly, Mays L. Swicord,
Shogoo Ueno, Jan Wallczek, Marvin C. Ziskin