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Herbert Koenig was remembered in Munich by Charles Polk as one of the early pioneers of Bioelectromagnetics who died in 1996, after having spent most of his life in this city.
Herbert Koenig was a student of W.O. Schumann, Professor of Electrophysics at the Technical University of Munich who predicted on theoretical grounds the existence of lightning excited electromagnetic resonances in the concentric spheres "cavity" formed by the earth's surface and the lower boundary of the ionosphere. For his doctoral thesis Herbert Koenig was the first person to experimentally establish the existence of these resonances at approximately 8, 14 and 20 Hz ("Atmospherics geringster Frequenzen", Z. Angew. Physik 11(7), 1059). Charles Polk had the good fortune of collaborating later with him on measurements of "Schumann Resonances" that were coordinated in time between West Greenwich in Rhode Island, USA and Brannenburg in Bavaria. He spent a year (1968/69) with us at the University of R.I. before returning to Munich where he eventually became Professor in the Electrophysics Institute at the Technical University.
Herbert Koenig became interested in "Bioelectromagnetics" long before his colleagues from geophysics moved to biological applications of electromagnetic theory. That interest led to several books: Unsichtbare Umwelt (The Invisible Environment), Elektrischer Strom als Umwelt Faktor (Electric Current as Environmental Factor), as co-editor and contributor Electromagnetic Bioinformation and as editor Das pathogenetische Energiedefizit (The pathological energy deficit). Professor Koenig also conducted a careful study of the divining rod phenomenon that led to two small volumes: Erdstrahlen? Der Wunschelruten-Report (Earth Radiation? The report on divining rods) and Mensch, Wuenschelrutenkrankheit (Human divining rod disease).
Herbert Koenig was a superb designer of electronic instrumentation that made possible the experiments needed to satisfy his broad range of interests. His teaching at the Technical University of Munich has also provided the first introduction of electricity and magnetism of some of those who are now actively pursuing investigations in Bioelectromagnetism.
Curtis Johnson was one important person who brought electromagnetic research several decades ago back into the center of public and scientific attention. Johnson built the University of Utah into one of the incubators of the bioelectromagnetics community. He died just months before the founding of BEMS.
In 1975, Curtis Johnson proposed using the terminology “Specific Absorption Rate (SAR)” to replace the more widely accepted “dose rate” to define the absorption rate per unit mass. He felt that SAR was more appropriate terminology for the measurement of RF energy absorption, and that dose rate had been simply borrowed from the ionizing radiation community. Curtis Johnson was a main contributor to the publication of four editions of the Radiofrequency Radiation Dosimetry Handbook, the “RFR experimenters’ bible”.
In 1984, BEMS approved the establishment of a student award in memory of Curtis Carl Johnson for the best paper presented to the Society’s annual meeting. The award carries with it the presentation of a certificate and a monetary prize.
David E. Janes, Jr. Captain, United States Public Health Service 5 July 1934 - 10 March 2010 Dave was born on 5 July 1934 in Kansas City, MO, where he lived until enrolling in William Jewell College, a private, four-year liberal arts college in Liberty, MO. Upon graduation, Dave received a fellowship from the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) to study at the University of Washington in Seattle, WA. After he completed his fellowship he received his commission as an officer in the US Public Health Service and was stationed in Washington, DC. During this tour of duty, he participated in Operation Hardtack, which was a series of nuclear tests conducted by the US in 1958 in the Pacific Ocean. From 1960-64, he studied at the Medical College of Virginia, pursuing advanced education in the biological effects of microwave radiation under the guidance of William T. Ham, chair of the Medical Bioengineering Department. He completed all course work and exams but was not able to complete his research to obtain a PhD because he was transferred by the Public Health Service to Rockville, MD for his next tour of duty. In Rockville, Dave worked at the Bureau of Radiological Health (BRH), in the US Department of Health, Education and Welfare (DHEW), to investigate the potential hazards from exposure to low intensity ionizing and nonionizing radiation. At BRH, Dave was instrumental in developing the early investigations into the interaction of microwave radiation with biological systems at the molecular level. In December 1970, Dave was transferred by President Nixon's Reorganization Plan No. 3, along with half of the employees of BRH, to help create the US Environmental Protection Agency. As a charter employee of EPA, Dave was responsible for drafting positions the Agency would take regarding its responsibilities in the ionizing and nonionizing radiation regions of the spectrum with regard to public health and safety from environmental exposures. Dave retained his interest in the interaction of electromagnetic fields (EMF) with molecular systems through the remainder of his career with EPA, but when EPA consolidated its research operations in Research Triangle Park, NC, Dave did not follow. Instead, he was detailed to EPA's Office of Air, Noise and Radiation in Washington, DC, where he led assessment teams that had a mandate over low-level ionizing radiation and electromagnetic fields (EMF) ranging from 0 to 300 GHz. In the mid ‘70s, Dave was appointed Chief of the Electromagnetic Radiation Analysis Branch in the Office of Radiation Programs. In the EMF arena, Dave's group was responsible for establishing in the 1970s through the mid-1980s the ambient levels of radiofrequency fields in the broadcast and land-mobile frequency bands in 15 major US cities. In 1980, Dave was appointed Director of the Analysis and Support Division in EPA’s Office of Air and Radiation. He supported the efforts of his group to pursue the best science possible to establish exposure conditions, and to investigate their possible biological consequences. A primary responsibility of EPA’s Office of Air and Radiation was to establish radiation protection guidance for Federal agencies from all sources in the United States, both ionizing and nonionizing. In July 1986 Dave's Division issued a notice in the Federal Register entitled: “Federal Radiation Protection Guidance; Proposed Alternatives for Controlling Public Exposure to Radiofrequency Radiation.” This guidance evaluated various exposure options and proposed EMF exposure limits for the general population. Although responses to the EMF exposure recommendations were generally favorable, some Federal agencies objected to the initiative, and it was pursued no further. His Division continued to operate in a data collection mode to monitor and assess the impact of EMF on public health and the environment from all sources of nonionizing radiation. Dave’s Division also participated in the Federal government’s responses to the ionizing radiation emergencies, most notably, at Three Mile Island in 1979 and Chernobyl in 1986. In 1989, Dave retired as Division Director after 32 years of government service. Throughout Dave’s career, he was thought of as a man of science, always using detailed and precise language in describing a project or his expectation in research work for which he was responsible. Dave was also well-known for his honesty and integrity. These characteristics were positive attributes in encouraging younger colleagues working for him to use the same degree of objectivity in their work. Following retirement from government service, Dave received his Masters Degree in education from George Washington University. He then embarked upon his new career, teaching physics at Walt Whitman High School, which he found extremely rewarding. Dave also enjoyed his time with Boy Scout troop 447. He fondly looked back on various hikes, campouts and county fair experiences with the scout troop. His passion was gardening and home improvement, saying that his house was "a work in progress." Contributors: Carl Blackman, John Allis, Norb Hankin, Ed Mantiply, Ric Tell, Dan Cahill, and Rafie Ferguson.
Edward L. Hunt, 82, a retired research psychologist at Walter Reed Army Institute of Research who studied the biological effects of electromagnetic radiation, died Dec. 29 at his home in Olney. He had metastatic melanoma. Mr. Hunt worked at the institute from 1975 to 1988, spending the first two years as chief of the microwave research department. His research on non-ionizing radiation, which includes microwaves and radio waves, helped establish standards in the field of bioelectromagnetic research and determine safe exposure levels for humans. Edward Lawrence Hunt was a native of East Lansing, Mich., and a 1946 philosophy and psychology graduate of Michigan State University. He did graduate work in psychology at the University of California at Los Angeles. He spent much of his early career as a biological and experimental research psychologist at the old Naval Radiological Defense Laboratory in San Francisco. He received a lab award for his work on X-rays and their effect on the nervous system. From 1969 to 1975, he was a research psychologist at Battelle-Northwest in Richland, Wash., and helped develop a powerful measuring device called a twin-well calorimeter to measure amounts of absorbed microwave energy. With Donald J. Kimeldorf, he wrote "Ionizing Radiation: Neural Function and Behavior" (1965). Mr. Hunt also had articles about ionizing radiation published in such journals as Nature and Science. He was a founding member, first secretary and treasurer of the Bioelectromagnetics Society, an organization of scientists who study electromagnetics. He also held roles on public policy advisory committees for the Environmental Protection Agency and other federal and scientific bodies. He was a member of the Randolph Lions Club in Rockville, where he did fundraising work to help the needy buy glasses. He also had a key role in the growth of Lions Camp Merrick in Charles County. His avocations included gardening, salmon fishing, camping, polka dancing and hosting crab feeds. His marriage to Shirley Williams Hunt ended in divorce. Survivors include his partner, Peggy White of Olney; a daughter from his first marriage, Stephanie Hunt of San Francisco; and a son he helped raise with White, Joshua Rose of Olney.
Born in 1919 in Brooklyn, New York, Louis Heynick died on April 6, 2005 in Palo Alto, California, after a brief fight with cancer.
Lou was best known to the bioelectromagnetics community for his long, meticulous assistance to the committee setting human microwave exposure standards. He chaired the Literature Surveillance Working Group from 1978 until his death as the RF standard, C95.1, moved from one "home" to another. It was first part of the American National Standards Institute Committee C95.1, then the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Standards Coordinating Committee 28 Subcommittee 4, and later the International Committee on Electromagnetic Safety SC-4. Lou attended almost all subcommittee meetings for more than 26 years and was a highly valued contributor.
Lou also contributed to many critical reviews of the bems6519tromangetics scientific literature, the first for the President's Office of Telecommunications Policy in 1976. The last was three chapters in Supplement 6, 2003 of Bioelectromagnetics, the Special Issue commissioned by IEEE ICES SC-4. In between, Lou provided valuable input to reviews for Environmental Impact Statements for major RF-emitting systems in the USA, including four U.S. Air Force PAVE PAWS installations, the Department of Energy's Soar Satellite Power System, four Over-The-Horizon Backscatter Radar installations, the National Weather Service's Next-Generation Doppler Radar System (NEXRAD, later WSR88D), plus its Vertical Profiler, the Ground-Wave Emergency Network (GWEN), the Relocatable Over-the-Horizon Radar System (ROTHER) in Puerto Rico, and others.
The yongest of seven, Lou attended Brooklyn College on a scholarship where he majored in Physics. There he met Yetta Milstein, a History/Economics major, whom he married in July 1941. Lou was a Lieutnant in the Army Signal Corps during World War II, serving in the Pacific for two and a half years as a radar officer. After the war, he attended Columbia University and did graduate work at New York University, completing all course work towards a PhD shor of the thesis. Lou worked at the Brooklyn Navy Yard before moving to Fort Monmouth, New Jersey, where he managed a program in the area of electon tubes.
Lou left government employment and moved to California in 1963 to become Director of the Physical Electronics Laboratory at Stanford Research Institute (later SRI International). He made significant contributions on field-emission devices which led to several patents, and also was editor of IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices. In 1974, after working 30 years on electron tube devices, Lou became a senior staff physicist in the Electromagnetic Techniques Laboratory at SRI and began another 30-year career on the biological effects of microwaves, a new area of interest which did not end with his retirement from SRI in 1984.
Lou was a balanced individual with active interestes ranging from music, painting, science fiction, folk dancing, languages, a monthly book club, and travle around the globe - all of whihch he kept up with until his death. He is survived by his wife of 63 years, Yetta, a daughhter, a son and one grandchild.
By Peter Polson, Heynick's long-time associate and friend
Charles J. Hannan, a researcher interested in the possibility of using electromagnetic fields to modulate the administration of various cancer chemotherapy drugs and monitor their effectiveness, died Friday, June 30, 1995 of unknown causes at the age of 47. He is survived by his wife, Pattie, and his five children: Schuyler (Sky), Scott, Stephen, Sara, all of North Augusta, South Carolina, and Charles, of Huntsville, Alabama.
Charles Hannan attended the University of Alabama in Tuscaloosa, where he earned B.A. and M.S. degrees in Microbiology. He received a Ph.D. in Pharmacology from the Medical College of Georgia in Augusta, GA in 1976 during which time he was listed in Who's Who Among Students in American Universities and Colleges. He was awarded a postdoctoral fellowship from the National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke for work at the Medical College of Georgia from 1976-1977. He subsequently served as a Research Associate at both the Medical College of Georgia and the Augusta Veterans' Administration Hospital (Department of Nuclear Medicine). From 1977-1991, he served in the U.S. Army as Chief of the Departments of Clinical Investigations in Fort Gordon, GA, Tacoma, WA, and Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD before rejoining the Medical College of Georgia as an Associate Professor in the Department of Radiology and the VA Medical Center in Augusta, GA in 1991. He was a member of the Society of Nuclear Medicine, the Neurosciences Society, the Georgia Heart Association, Sigma Xi, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and the Medical College of Georgia Brain Club. Dr. Hannan joined the Bioelectromagnetics Society in 1993 as an Associate Member and participated in the 1995 BEMS meeting, presenting a paper on how magnetic fields might facilitate chemotherapy treatments of otherwise multidrug resistant human tumor cells.
Dr. Hannan's quiet presence and notable red hair accompanied an extraordinarily pleasant manner. At the time of his death he was interested in learning more about the ion parametric resonance model and how he might apply it to his research efforts. Though he was just beginning to work in bioelectromagnetics, his efforts showed much promise. For those BEMS members fortunate enough to interact with him, the loss is enormous.
William Ham, Professor Emeritus of Medical Bioengineering at Virginia Commonwealth University, died on September 2, 1998 in Richmond, Virginia. He had been retired since 1989. He was an expert and world leader on the biomedical application of lasers and light-induced-vision problems, such as solar retinitis.
A native of Norfolk, VA he earned a B.A. in engineering in 1931, an M.A. in physics in 1933 and a Ph.D. in physics in 1935 - all from the University of Virginia. He was a physics instructor and researcher at Columbia University, worked in industrial physics and the family flour business after his father's death and then returned to the University of Virginia in 1940 as part of the Manhattan Project. During World War II he served in the Marine Corps in the South Pacific where he attained the rank of major.
Dr. Ham came to Richmond in 1948 as an Associate Professor in the Medical College of Virginia's Department of Surgery. Prior to that he was the Head of the Division of Physics and Electronics at the Institute of Textile Technology in Charlottesville, Virginia. In 1953 he became a Full Professor and Chairman of the newly created Biophysics Department. Under his leadership, the department introduced nuclear-age courses, instituted a division of biometry, which eventually became the Biostatistics Department, acquired a computer and established a computer center.
Dr. Ham was part of a five-man team sent to Japan in 1956 to investigate the feasibility of producing accurate data on radiation exposure of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki survivors. The team's report resulted in Project Ichiban, a program to assign an individual radiation dose to the approximately 100,000 survivors. In 1959 he testified before a congressional subcommittee studying the potential effects of nuclear war on the United States. In 1969 he was named to the newly established committee on Electromagnetic Radiation Management Advisory Council (ERMAC) which operated out of the Office of the President and later the Department of Commerce. He received Virginia's Life Achievement Award in Science in 1990 and in 1997 he was the first recipient of the George M. Wilkening Award for excellence in laser applications.
He is survived by his wife Jean Anderson Ham of Richmond, and two daughters, Christina Read of New York and Elspeth Read Ham of Richmond.
Melvin R. Frei passed away February 25, 1998, after a long and gallant battle with cancer. He is survived by his wife, Carol, two children, and two grandchildren.
Mel completed his education at Texas A&M University, receiving his baccalaureate degree in 1966, a M.S. in 1968, and a Ph.D. in 1972. Mel then moved to San Antonio, accepting an assistant professorship in biology at Trinity University in 1972. He was promoted to Professor in 1989 and remained at Trinity until his early retirement from the university in 1997, at which time he became professor emeritus. He was an extremely gifted teacher who twice received the Outstanding Professor award from his students. Over his 26 year tenure, he taught advanced physiology to approximately 800 undergraduate students; more than 300 of these students are now in the health professions as medical doctors, dentists, and biomedically oriented Ph.D.s.
Mel began his research in the field of bioelectromagnetics in 1981, when he became aligned with what is now the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory at Brooks AFB. Over the years, Mel authored over 50 papers in this field, principally in the area of cardiovascular responses to radiofrequency radiation. In the last several years, however, his research interests had expanded to include investigations of chronic exposure to radiofrequency radiation in cancer-prone mice. Papers related to this recent interest have recently been published to international acclaim. He was a long-term member of the Bioelectromagnetics Society, presenting papers at 14 of the annual meetings.
So much for the facts. For those of us who knew and worked with Mel, he was much more than what could ever appear on paper. Mel was a unique man, a throwback to an older and more honorable time. A country boy from Westphalia, Texas, he rose to a position of respect among the international bioelectromagnetics community. Yet, he never lost sight of the importance of people. He took care of all of us---his family, his students, and his colleagues. He could always be counted on to listen, to give thoughtful advice in a "down-home" manner, and to do all that he could to help. He approached his science and teaching with the same wit and humor that he exhibited when talking about his favorite pastimes, hunting and fishing. In short, he was an extraordinary mentor, teacher, colleague, and, most of all, friend.
Compiled from Chicago Tribune and Wall Street Journal obituaries Charles F. Ehret, a scientist whose pioneering research at Argonne National Laboratory in Illinois led to the development of a popular diet to combat the effects of jet lag, died Feb. 24 at his home in Grayslake, Ill., from natural causes. He was 83. In 1983, Ehret and coauthor Lynne Waller Scanlon published the book "Overcoming Jet Lag," outlining a special diet to help avoid jet lag using a planned rescheduling of meal times, including types and amounts of food to be eaten. It also specifies alternate days of feasting and fasting to help speed adjustment to new time zones. Jet-lag sufferers as diverse as President Ronald Reagan, the Mormon Tabernacle Choir and rock group Aerosmith relied on the advice of Charles F. Ehret for relief. A Bronx-born zoologist specializing in chronobiology, or the science of circadian rhythms, Mr. Ehret probed the effects of light and diet on biological clocks, starting with single-celled organisms as subjects. In the 1950s, before turning to jet lag, he developed an 80-foot spectrograph to determine the effects of 15,000 wavelengths on the mating habits of paramecia. A colleague once dubbed him "the Kinsey of the protozoa." The spread of long-range travel in the 1960s introduced an unforeseen ailment, jet lag, and brought Mr. Ehret an opportunity to extend his research to multicellular organisms. Opinion was mixed on how to combat the fatigue and disorientation that were the effect of rapid transit across time zones, though most seemed to agree that some mixture of sleep and diet were involved. In 1982, after more than a decade of study, Mr. Ehret released the "Argonne Anti-Jet-Lag Diet," a regimen of diet and sleep designed to alter the body's internal clock. The Argonne National Laboratory, where he worked from 1951 until he retired in 1988, distributed hundreds of thousands of cards with a short form of the diet. In 1983, Mr. Ehret published a more comprehensive version in "Overcoming Jet Lag." A licensed version of the Argonne Anti-Jet-Lag diet is available online at antijetlagdiet.com. He recommended a four-day lead up to jet travel, with a diet sometimes abbreviated "feast/fast, feast/fast." Feast days included big, protein-filled breakfasts to amp up metabolism in the morning and carbohydrates at night to slow it down. He warned against the tendency of the American diet to do the opposite: "Sugar cereal and sugar drinks for breakfast thus tend to tell you to go back to sleep again," while a steak and eggs breakfast (or a lower-in-cholesterol equivalent) is actually just what you need." "Every cell in the body is a clock," he wrote, "and they're all brought together by a special pacemaker in the brain." Among his more intriguing findings is a bit of wisdom familiar to any American who has visited Europe: jet lag is worse traveling east than west, because "it is easier to slow down the biological clock than to speed it up." Mr. Ehret added a few other caveats: those traveling east should seek sunlight in the mornings and drink coffee at night, while westbound fliers should drink coffee in the morning and limit sunlight exposure to the afternoons. Also: abstain from alcohol and wear comfortable clothes. Mr. Ehret told People magazine in 1984 that he first tested out his theories on his own family during a trip to Vienna on which they were "feeling terrific" while "everyone else on the plane was zonked out." His diet got great publicity in 1983, when President Reagan followed it during a trip to Tokyo. He used it again the next year, on a trip to China. Dr. Ehret was born and raised in the Bronx, and was a graduate of City College of New York. He received a doctorate in zoology from the University of Notre Dame. In World War II, Ehret served in the Army's 87th Infantry Division and fought in several battles, including the Battle of the Bulge. He was awarded the Purple Heart and Bronze Star, family members said. In 1951, Ehret began working at Argonne National Laboratory, where during the 1950s and 1960s he did research identifying circadian rhythms in animals, and later human beings. This work led him to develop a diet that could help the body adjust to time shifts, particularly for shift workers or passengers traveling over several time zones. According to Argonne officials, hundreds of thousands of travelers over the years have requested information on Ehret's anti-jet-lag diet. "Charles was a top-notch scientist who wanted to use his research to improve the quality of people's lives," said Ken Groh, a former colleague and network specialist at Argonne. "People called him wanting to learn more about his diet, and he'd talk with everyone — moms and dads, teachers, heads of corporations, or anyone else interested in what he had to say." Ehret retired in 1988. In addition to his son John, survivors include his wife of 61 years, Dorothy; three more sons, Thomas, Peter, and Albert; two daughters, Louise Legler and Julia Buckley; 14 grandchildren; and six great-grandchildren.
Harvey David Cohen, longtime member of the bioelectromagnetics community, died peacefully in his sleep on March 5, 1999, one week before his 70th birthday. Harvey was born in Brooklyn, New York on March 12, 1929. He received a B.A. degree in psychology from Brooklyn College in 1952, and did graduate work in biomedical sciences at Columbia University in New York. His professional career as a physiologist and biomedical engineer spanned the era from the vacuum tube to the computer chip.
From 1959 to 1974, Harvey served in various capacities as an Instrumentation Designer, Research Associate, Assistant Professor of Psychiatry, and Acting Head of the Human Psychophysiology Department at four medical research institutions: Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, the SUNY Downstate Medical Center, the Institute of the Pennsylvania Hospital in Philadelphia, and the University of Pennsylvania Medical School. He made important contributions to: the problem of oxygenating premature babies maintained in hospital incubators; techniques for the quantification of thoracic and abdominal respiratory patterns; development of instrumentation for measuring blood flow changes specific to sexual arousal in both men and women; studies of brain (EEG) electrical activity during human sexual arousal; and research on sleep and dreaming.
Harvey moved to Midwest Research Institute (MRI) in Kansas City, Missouri in 1974 to help found the Biobehavioral Sciences Laboratory. Starting in 1982, Harvey helped lead the human exposure research program at MRI. He designed and constructed the first comprehensive test facility for the study of human exposure to power-frequency electric and magnetic (EM) fields. He conceived and built the first automated system capable of presenting EM fields under true double-blind control. Harvey also developed instrumentation to obtain artifact-free recordings of human physiology during active exposure to 60 Hz electric fields as high as 15 kV/m.
Harvey also found time to become an accomplished silversmith and served as President of the Kansas City Sterling Guild. Harvey retired as MRI's Principal Biomedical Engineer in 1995, but continued his association as a consultant. He was a member of BEMS, the IEEE Biomedical Engineering Group, the Society for Psychophysiological Research, and Sigma Xi.
During his retirement he taught adult education classes in science and computer education and was active in the Uncertainty Group which held monthly meetings to discuss scientific and social issues.
Harvey was a warm and giving person who worked throughout his life for world peace, justice, and the equality of all people. He is lovingly remembered by his wife, Helen Cohen of Kansas City, MO; his children, Charlotte Cohen and Rachel DeSario, of New York, N.Y. and William Cohen, of Washington, D.C.; two grandchildren, Dante and Lorenzo DeSario; and many loving friends and relatives who will miss him dearly.